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Patient's guide

More than 80% of the information about the surrounding world comes to us through the eye.

Eye anatomy

The cornea is the front part of the outer layer of the eye, which is embedded in the sclerotic coat like the watch glass. It is transparent to light and is the first component of the eye optical system. The cornea is of a layer structure and contains no blood or lymph vessels.

White, outer and opaque layer (sclerotic coat ). It helps to keep the proper shape of the eyeball. Its thinning e.g. in high myopia is the reason for the formation of so-called disease - scleral staphyloma.

Under the sclerotic coat there is the vascular coat of the eye also called the uvea. It is composed of the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid. The choroid (chorioidea) is a multi-layered membrane containing the pigment and numerous blood vessels nourishing all the structures of the eyeball.

The iris
It is the colourful part of the eye whose function is to reflect the light coming into the eye due to the pigmented epithelium on its rear surface.

The pupil
It is the circular hole in the middle of the iris which regulates the amount of light coming into the eye.

The lens
The crystalline lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye set on the ciliary zonule. It allows us to view objects up close and from far away.

The vitreous body
It is a transparent gelatinous substance, composed of 99% of water and a small amount protein. Its function is to fill up the eyeball and ensure the proper intraocular pressure. Also to stabilize the shape and maintain the correct adherence of the retina to the vascular coat of the eye.

The retina
It is a light-sensitive layer of nerve tissue, lining the inner surface of the eye. The retina is the encircling part of the visual analyzer. It is a complex nervous system which serves for transforming photo stimuli into nerve stimuli and transmitting them to the visual centre in the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex can be treated as the most outer part of brain which is confirmed in the process of its creation at the time of embryonic development.

The macula
The macula is the place on the rear pole of the retina responsible for central vision.

Questions and Answers

What to eat in order to see better?
For the sake of the visual acuity you need to consume a lot of antioxidants neutralizing dangerous free radicals.

We have two types of antioxidants:
- vitamins (E, C, beta-carotene)
- quasi vitamins (e.g. anthocyans, lutein, quercetin etc.)

1. Anthocyans - strengthen blood vessels and their elasticity providing good vascularisation and eyes nourishment. We find them in fruits such as: chokeberry, blackberries, blueberries, black elder, grapes, strawberries, red cabbage, beetroots.

2. Beta-carotene - helps with the assimilation of vitamin A. Lack of vitamin A causes so-called twilight blindness i.e. a visual impairment at the end of the day, when light intensity drops. You can find Beta-carotene in e.g. carrots, paprika, tomato, pumpkin, broccoli, mango and apricots.

3. Polyphenols - protect the body against free radicals. Good sources of polyphenols are: beer, wine, grapes, berries, olive oil, tea, nuts, cocoa, Yerba maté, and some other vegetables and fruits. The highest concentration of polyphenols is usually in the fruit skin.

4. Carotenoids i.e. lutein and zeaxanthin - exist in the macula lutea, this is the part of eye retina, in which yellow pigments are located responsible for vision. They protects the eye from harmful UV radiation and support the vitamin E antioxidant effect. They can be found in spinach, kale, cabbage, green peas, brussels sprout, corn , egg yolks.

5. Zinc - its absence causes a visual impairment (zinc occurs in lean meat , poultry, fish, groats and brown bread. It is advisable to consume zinc together with selenium and copper. The sources of selenium are fish, lean meat, poultry wheat, brown rice, pumpkin seeds. Copper occurs in seafood, nuts, mushrooms, leafy green vegetables, wholegrain cereals.

6. Omega -3 unsaturated fatty acids. The concentration of omega-3 is only higher in the brain than in the eye. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to improve the vascularisation of the eye nerve and protect the person from a vision loss. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent toxic substances from being deposited and improve the eye nerve vascularisation (source: fish oils and vegetable oils such as of beans, soybeans and walnuts ). Find out more on this subject by going to

7. Vitamin C - highly neutralizes free radicals and participates in vitamin E regeneration and hence it slows down the process of yellow spot degeneration and a loss of visual acuity. (Source: rosehips, black current, citrus fruits, sauerkraut juice).

8. Vitamin E - protects against lipid oxidation and neutralizes some reactive forms of oxygen. Its concentration in the retina especially in the cells of the pigmented epithelium and photoreceptors, (which also is high), decreases with age and therefore the diet must be enriched in vitamin E (vegetable oils, nuts, cereal seeds, wheat sprouts, eggs, milk and green vegetables).

What is cataract?

A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye resulting in a deterioration of vision, giving the effect e.g. of blurred or double vision. Advanced cataract can lead to a significant deterioration in the eye vision.

Cataract is due to partial or total clouding of the lens causing an eyesight impairment. The reasons for cataract can also be injuries, metabolic disorders, or genetic factors, toxic factors, systemic illnesses and natural aging process.

Cataract symptoms. Depending on the location and degree of clouding the patient complains about various vision problems. In bright light some objects may then seem blurry. In some cases, objects are surrounded by a ring of light ( so-called halo effect due to rays splitting). In highly advanced stages of cataract the visual acuity is severely diminished and prevents the patient from doing work and moving freely.

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a disease of the eye nerve (neuropathy) due to the increased intraocular pressure. The increase in the intraocular pressure puts a squeeze on the visual nerve. Nerve damage (ii) can occur at different pressure values for different people. Glaucoma is one of most common causes of sight loss. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the loss of vision. Glaucoma most commonly develops in people after 50, but anyone over 35 should have his intraocular pressure checked every two years. An increased risk of this disease occurs e.g. in patients with diabetes. The risk group are the people with a family history, and also patients with myopia.

Classic symptoms of glaucoma can include: headaches, pains of the eyeball, blurred vision (especially in lower light intensity).

Symptoms of glaucoma at the beginning of the disease can be unnoticeable until a narrowing of vision occurs.

Some symptoms of a severe glaucoma bout are:
1. Strong pains in the eyeball radiating to the forehead, the jaw, nausea and vomiting, general malaise, a higher body temperature.

2. Vision impairment sometimes to the point of only feeling a sense of light .

3. Light intolerance and lacrimation caused by the corneal oedema and iris hyperemia .

4. The vision of rainbow colour halos due to the corneal oedema .

5. The increased intraocular pressure.

6. The dilated pupil unresponsive to light

The course of glaucoma. An acute glaucoma attack can last for hours, or even a few days. It can subside spontaneously by itself. Unfortunately sharp attacks of glaucoma can repeat themselves at different intervals. .

How is an ophthalmic exam performed?

Fundus examination
Fundus of the eye examination is a basic eye exam requiring pupil dilation. Dilating eye drops are used. Sometimes, in order to obtain the proper width of the pupil several instillations of dilating drops must be used. Eye drops effects can last a few hours (about 3h) , which can impair the patient's ability of driving a car. For this reason, the patient should not drive for the ophthalmic examination. After the test, it is advisable to wear sunglasses for more comfort.

(AMD) age related macular degeneration.

Macular degeneration related to age (AMD) usually begins in the old age. The disease damages the macula lutea of the retina i.e. the place responsible for a precise and sharp vision. AMD is the most common cause of vision loss for people over 65 in Europe, America and Australia. According to the WHO data (of 2000) in 2040 between 60 and 75 million people in the world can be affected by AMD. For more information on AMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration) and diabetic macular oedema (DME) visit:

Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry Eye Syndrome is caused by insufficient lacrimal secretion, which in turn, causes the cornea and conjunctiva to be insufficiently covered by the tear film.

Most common patients' complaints are: a feeling of a foreign object or sand under the eyelids, burning, itching, piercing, redness of the conjunctivas, eyes tiredness, involuntary blinking, visual acuity disorders.

There are often cases of conjunctivitis, the edges of the eyelids inflammation and corneal ulcers in patients with lacrimal secretion disorders. Not treated the Dry Eye Syndrome causes the eyes to be continuously red and to be difficult to open after waking up.

What are main causes of lacrimal secretion disorders?
- Air conditioning and ventilation
- Central heating
- Working in front of a computer
- Reading, watching TV for hours
- Wearing contact lenses

What are methods of treating the Dry Eye Syndrome?
- rewetting medication (drops, gels), which require constant use
- Hydro gel Plugs FORM FIT(for lacrimal points). Novelty!

Nowadays with developments in technology and excellent materials it is possible to use one's own tears, which are the best 'medicine' for ocular surface disorders.

The hydrogel plugs FORMS FIT (Oasis) are built from a transparent hydrogel material applied to the lacrimal point, which absorbs lacrimal fluid creating an elastic substance. This material perfectly fits into individual dimensions and the ampulla shape of the lacrimal canaliculus. In this way it prevents the outflow of tears to the nasal cavity. The plugs are hypoallergenic. They do not absorb drugs administered to the conjunctival sac. The effect of retaining tears or 'wet-eyes' occurs after 10 minutes and remains as such.
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